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"The" and "This"




Unlike a noun that only has the endings of one specific gender, the words se "the", žes "this", and all adjectives instead have endings (or forms) for all three genders. When they accompany masculine nouns they use masculine endings, when they accompany neuter nouns they use neuter endings, and when they accompany feminine nouns they use feminine endings.


Se "the"


When "the" accompanies a masculine noun it takes the forms shown under "masculine", when it accompanies neuter nouns it takes the forms shown under "neuter", and when it accompanies feminine nouns it takes the forms shown under "feminine". The meaning "that" was naturally implied with this word as well and a phrase such as se cyning "the king" therefore also means "that king".

Masculine
N.  seža
A.  žoneža
G.  žęsžara
D.  žęmžęm
Neuter
žętža
žętža
žęsžara
žęmžęm
Feminine
seoža
žaža
žęrežara
žęrežęm



Notice that the plural endings for all genders are the same: ža, ža, žara, žęm. And the neuter only differs from the masculine in using žęt.


žes "this"


Masculine
N.  žesžas
A.  žisnežas
G.  žissesžissa
D.  žissumžissum
Neuter
žisžas
žisžas
žissesžissa
žissumžissum
Feminine
žeosžas
žasžas
žissežissa
žissežissum



Notice again that the plural endings for all genders are the same: žas, žas, žissa, žissum. The neuter only differs from the masculine in using žis.


When the word "the" or "this" is used with a noun it needs to have the same case and number as the noun it accompanies. Cyning in the nominative plural uses the ending -as: cyningas "kings". And the masculine form for "the" or "this" in the nominative plural is ža or žas. Since these are both in the nominative plural they go together correctly as ža cyningas "the kings" or žas cyningas "these kings".





Adjectives



Strong and Weak

If the word "the" or "this" is not used along with an adjective, the adjective takes the endings of the Strong Declension. In other words it is only in a phrase such as "strong king" not "the/this strong king" that the adjective uses the endings of the Strong Declension.

Strong Declension


Masculine
N.  trumtrume
A.  trumnetrume
G.  trumestrumra
D.  trumumtrumum
Neuter
trumtrumu
trumtrumu
trumestrumra
trumumtrumum
Feminine
trumutruma
trumetruma
trumretrumra
trumretrumum



But when the word "the" or "this" is used, the adjective then uses the endings of what is called The Weak Declension. The adjective also uses the endings of the Weak Declension when it is used with a possessive pronoun (my, your, our, etc) or if the is used in directly addressing someone (as (you) sweet lady, (you) great man, etc).


Weak Declension


Masculine
N.  trumatruman
A.  trumantruman
G.  trumantrumena
D.  trumantrumum
Neuter
trumetruman
trumetruman
trumantrumena
trumantrumum
Feminine
trumetruman
trumantruman
trumantrumena
trumantrumum



The underlined endings of the Strong Declension above are the only endings that differ from those of the nouns. All others, including all of the Weak Declension, are the same as those used by the declensions of the nouns. To help remember the endings it is helfup to notice their similarity to forms of the word "the":

Adjective with EndingForm of the word "the"

trumnežone
trumumžęm
trumrežęre
trumražara



StrongWeak

trum cyning "strong king"se truma cyning "the strong king"
trumes scipes "strong ship's"žęs truman scipes "the strong ship's"
trumu lufu "strong love"seo trume lufu "the strong love"
truma cyrican "strong churches"žas truman cyrican "these strong churches"


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